WATER SURFACES IN PARK MAKSIMIR
Maksimir lakes are a inseparable part of total landscape picture
of the Park, which can be confirmed by the fact that they were
formed parallel with the Park. Highly valuable esthetic and landscape
characteristics of lakes, from the time they were formed have
an artifact function as well, firstly as ponds, and than as recreational
surfaces for boat rides.
During the past six lakes were formed in Park Maksimir, and
today we have four left – THE FIRST, THE SECOND, THE THIRD AND
THE FIFTH. In 1839 the first lake was built next to Maksimirska
street, two years later the second, than the third that is nowadays
dried out fourth lake. Artificially formed lakes get their water
from Bliznec stream, which is directly flowing into the second
and fifth lake. Beside Bliznec stream, we can name other periodical
streams but their importance for supplying lakes in comparison
with Bliznec stream is insignificant (Mirni Dol and Dahlia).
The first lake is located in the southern part of Park Maksimir.
Lake area is about 1.5 hectare, and water depth around 3.30 meters.
It was constructed in 1839 in a part of oak forest near Poštanska
street (today Maksimirska street) where a small lake used to
be. Bishop Haulik expanded it from 1844 to 1845 and constructed
a waterfall on the part of stream Bliznec where its opened canal
pours water in the lake. Two differently sized islands were built
during the construction works. On the smaller one was a small
wooden house for swans, after which the island got its name Swan
island. On the larger one a sculpture Fisherman from Naples was
placed. Both islands are now a part of the ZOO. It gets water
from the Second lake, which gets its water from Bliznec stream
and occasional from little stream Dahlia that springs in Park
Maksimir and dries out in the dry season. Overflow in the lake
is located about 1 meter above the bottom sot that the water
below overflow hill stagnates.
/ The first lake with arched bridge, postcard from 1900,
source: MGZ /
The Second lake is located north of the First lake on 122 elevation.
Its area is about 0.7 hectare, and depth from 0.5 to 1.5 meters,
and it is the smallest lake in this lake system. Bliznec stream
water brings into the lake a great amount of suspended inorganic
and organic matter, and in the time of heavy rain a lot of matter
from catchments area is drained into the lake.
/ The Second lake with swan house, photo from 1935, source:
Ministry of Culture /
The First and second lake are connected with a half-round
gutter that flows through the park as a decorative stream from
Fakultetsko dobro street to Second lake. From the Second lake
water flows in the First lake over a waterfall.
The Third lake is located to the west of the First and Second
lakes, and was built in 1911. In the beginning it was partially
supplied with water from Piškornica stream that was canalized
in 1987, and today by pipelines from the Fifth lake that gets
water from Bliznec stream. Its area is around 2 hectares with
water face elevation of around +127 meters. Water depth is
from 1 to 4 meters.
/ The Third lake, source: archive PIM /
The Fourth lake (former Third) was built by Bishop
Haulik in the period from 1853 to 1862, and was located next
to the natural flow of Bliznec stream in the northeast part
of the Park, opposite of the beehive, but it is empty since
1975. It was located on elevation 135 m, on the area of about
1.1 hectares, and water depth was from 0.5 to 1.0 meters.
It got water from the Fifth lake, and the water discharged
in Bliznec stream. HRVATSKE VODE is financing its ongoing
renovation. Pavilion Birch (Fishermen) cottage will be renovated
along with the lake. It used to be located on the north shore
of the lake and was destroyed in 1940.
/ Birch cottage on the Fourth lake, photo from 1930,
source: MGZ /
The Fifth lake is located
in the northern part of Park Maksimir and is the largest
lake of Maksimir 's lake system. Its area is about 3 hectares.
It is located on elevation 142 m. After demolishment of
the old one, a new dam was renovated. Water depth is 6
meters, and it gets water partially from rainfall area
Mirni Dol, but mostly from newly renovated supply from
Bliznec. On the Fifth lake fishermen from SFC »Bukovac-Maksimir«,
carry out recreational-sports fishing.
/ The Fifth lake, source: archive PIM /
Sixth lake (Pond) was located near army firing range
in the valley of Ivančića stream, and was formed by broadening
and deepening its basin. Today this pond does not exist
any more, but the mentioned broadening can still be seen
on the bottom part of dry stream basin. Pond was intended
for spawning fish for the purpose of breeding fish fry.
More on Park Maksimir's lakes you can find in publication Jezera
u perivoju Maksimir, author Amalije
Denich, Zagreb, 2004, published by Public institution
»Maksimir«, which can be purchased in the Institution.
In park Maksimir we can find the following streams:
BLIZNEC, BUKOVČAK, DAHLIA, MAKSIMIREC, MIRNI DOL,
PIŠKORNICA and ŠTEFANOVEC. Below we will mention
streams of greater importance for Park's water system.
Bliznec stream springs in the area of nature park
Medvednica. It is the most significant stream in
Park Maksimir. Catchment area is about 1250 ha, which
gives the possibility for forming significant streams
that can serve as a basis for feeding Maksimir's
lakes with water.
Dahlia stream springs in Park Maksimir, and it flows
into Second lake. Catchment area of Dahlia stream
is about 43 ha. From the viewpoint of lake supply,
it does not offer the possibility of significant
flows, especially during the dry season.
Maksimirec stream is located in the western part
of Park Maksimir, and it encompasses precipitation
catchment area of only 22 ha. It is periodical in
character, and during the summer it always dries
out. Since it flows through settled are, waters of
this stream are polluted and cannot be used for lake
Mirni dol stream springs in the north part of Park
Maksimir, it encompasses precipitation catchment
area of about 61 ha, and flows into the Fifth lake.
Since it has a limited hydrographic catchment area,
it is periodical in character, and does not represent
a significant contribution for lake supply.
Piškornica stream springs in Gornji Bukovac (Požarinje),
flows through the area of Park Maksimir and flows
into the Third lake, and finally into city sewage
near the First lake. Total catchment area is around
130 ha. Flow of Piškornice stream was deviated by
construction of sewage in settlements Požarinje and
Gornji Bukovac. Before renovation and reconstruction
waste and fecal water were pouring into the Third
lake. Dry opened stream basin can still be seen in
the Park. In it one can see water only during very
/ Bliznec stream, source: archive PIM /